Assessment of the presence of lipophilic phycotoxins in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) farmed along Peruvian coastal waters

Assessment of the presence of lipophilic phycotoxins in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) farmed along Peruvian coastal waters

PUCP

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ARTÍCULO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are known to produce lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMTs) such as okadaic acid (OA) (and its analogues dinophysistoxins (DTXs)), yessotoxins (YTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), and azaspiracids (AZAs), all of which can accumulate in bivalve mollusks and exert noxious effects on humans. Health regulations indicate a limit up to 160 µg/kg for OA/DTXs, PTXs or AZAs, and 3.75 mg/kg for YTXs.Argopecten purpuratus is one of the most important commercial marine products exploited in Perú. Despite its importance and the periodic reports of the presence of HABs in Peruvian coastal waters, the lack of information regarding potential contamination by LMTs is noteworthy.In this work, we report a study performed with 115 samples of A. purpuratus collected between November 2013 and March 2015 from 18 scallop production areas distributed along the Peruvian coast in search of LMTs. To magnify positive results, the hepatopancreas tissue was analyzed by an LC-MS/MS method implemented to quantify OA, YTX, AZA-1, and PTX-2. Baseline separation was achieved in 19 min. The method showed satisfactory linearity (R 2 > 0.997), precision (coefficient of variation < 15 %), and limit of quantification (0.155-0.479 ng/mL). The study revealed the presence of YTX in 72 samples and of PTX-2 in 17 samples, with both biotoxins found at concentrations below the regulatory limits. Free OA and AZA-1 were not detected in any scallop sample. This atypical profile, presence of PTX-2 in the absence of OA, has been previously reported and may be linked to presence of the dinoflagellate D. acuminata . The production of YTX could be associated to the phytoplankton G. spinifera and P. reticulatum .This is the first systematic assessment of the four groups of LMTs in shellfish from Peruvian coastal waters. The results attained suggest low prevalence of marine biotoxins in Peruvian bay scallops yet support the necessity of future surveillance and analysis of LMTs in Perú.

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